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  What Is The Difference Between Mechanical Seal And Oil Seal? ۳-۲۵ nhngnfbb nhngnfbb تحقیقات ،جزوات(vip-2 معماری)
  Tensionless Relax Dryer ۳-۲۵ nhngnfbb nhngnfbb تحقیقات ،جزوات(vip-2 معماری)
  Will Cutting Wood With a Diamond Blade Hurt It? ۳-۲۴ opjhyytg opjhyytg تحقیقات ،جزوات(vip-2 معماری)
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 Ulysse Nardin Perpetual Calendars Perpetual Manufacture Replica Watch Price 329-10

[تصویر:  Ulysse%20Nardin%20Diver%20Watch%203723-1...ACK-3B.jpg]

Ulysse Nardin Diver X Skeleton 3723-170LE-2A-BLACK/3B

Ulysse Nardin Diver X Skeleton Published

Ulysse Nardin is a watchmaker destined for you to rule the seas, this year also they reaffirmed that standing with the latest release from the DIVER X SKELETON. Back 2019, the Swiss manufacturer launched DIVER X Plaid Horn, Nemo Point along with Antarctica. The models were being released to celebrate the braveness of the Vendée Globe's only globe sailors. To celebrate the 175th anniversary, Ulysse Nardin has given new lifestyle to the Diver X style by stripping out far more dials and skeletonizing these people.

Ulysse Nardin has united two of it is iconic collections, the Diver and Executive Skeleton, in the new design for its brand-new horological UFO collection; the actual Diver X Skull. The gathering is an exclusive collection of skeletal frame diving watches, limited to a hundred seventy five pieces, all individually using. The Diver X Skeleton features design elements in the Diver X and Professional Skeleton collections, such as the hi-tech sporty appeal of the Diver X and the transparency in addition to technical prowess of the Exec Skeleton. high quality replica watch

design:

The 44mm case features a blue PVD coating, satin-finished lugs as well as microbeads on the sides. Typically the bezel itself is made of orange Carbonium®. The orange detail on the bezel, the defensive rubber around the crown, the inner lines of Ulysse Nardin’s iconic “X” all give a pop of color on the overall look of the watch.

Regarding the dial design and style, Ulysse Nardin said: " The desire to keep the dial program of the DIVER X SKELETON in the shape of a pink PVD X is one of the almost all technical and complex trends ever undertaken by Ulysse Nardin. "

The hour markers within the DIVER X SKELETON would have to be specially designed so that the technique they connected to the dial always been hidden, giving the paintball guns a floating visual experience. The hour, minute and also second hands are all sprayed with Superlunminova for much better visibility in dark/dull situations. To create a 3D effect or possibly a sense of depth around the dial, the Ulysse Nardin overlays layers, then accentuates the layered structure in the central " X". replica watches for sale

transfer:

The movement employed inside the DIVER X SKELETON is the UN-372 calibre auto movement. To create this new motion, Ulysse Nardin's engineering staff completely designed the UN371 movement. The UN-372 movements can be seen from the dial area. For this movement, the oscillatory weight is also designed in the enduring X shape of Ulysse Nardin. The barrel cover with 12 o’clock is also created from blue Carbonium® to match the particular bezel. The Un-372 activity operates at a frequency involving 3Hz (21, 600 VpH) and provides a power reserve of roughly 96 hours.

To match the colour of the case along with dial, the DIVER Times SKELETON comes with a rubber band in either a sea glowing blue or a supercharged orange. While Ulysse Nardin puts the idea: " It's a constant memento that Ulysse Nardin possesses always ruled the swells by looking up at the stars". replica Richard Mille Rafael Nadal

Personal references: 3723-170LE-3A-BLUE/3B (orange strap), 3723-170LE-3A-BLUE/3A (blue strap)

Requirements:

Case: 44 milimeter

Case Material: Glowing blue PVD / Blue Carbonium®

Dial: Skeleton X

Crystal: Sapphire, domed on both sides, with anti-reflective coating inside

Water resistant: 200 meters

Activity: UN-372 caliber automatic mobility

Power reserve: at least ninety-six hours

Strap: Azure or orange rubber straps

[تصویر:  Jacob%20Co%20Bugatti%20Chiron%20Tourbill...AE-ABA.jpg]

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 What Is The Difference Between Mechanical Seal And Oil Seal?

What Is The Difference Between Mechanical Seal And Oil Seal?

    The mechanical seal is used in a pump, mixer and other mechanical engineering scenarios to contain the fluid within a vessel where a shaft rotates through a stationary (or rotating) housing.

    Why is mechanical seal important in this situation?  It is because the rotating shaft has to move in a wet environment, but there should not be the leakage of pressurized fluid. Hence, the role of a seal is quite critical.

    Does it mean the seal stops the leakage completely? Well, on the practical grounds yes because there is no ‘visible leakage’.

    There is a little leakage as the fluid vapors get released into the atmosphere from the faces of the seal, though. Since the quantity is hardly quantifiable, the seals are considered leak proof.

            The seals do not damage pump sleeve or shaft.
       
            Due to inboard springs that get adjusted as the seal faces wear, it is not required to do daily maintenance.
       
            Mechanical seals cause less power consumption than gland packing because of the lightly loaded faces.
       
            In mechanical seals, the lubricant doesn’t get washed out. Therefore, bearing contamination gets avoided in normal operational conditions.
       
            Plant equipment remains corrosion free.
       
            Relatively less maintenance and cleaning are required. It makes mechanical seals cost-effective.
       
            Oil seals prevent accumulation of dirt in the machine.
       
    Oil seals  close off the space between stationary and moving components in the mechanical equipment. It saves the lubricant from escaping through the equipment and ensures smooth operation of the machine.

    Oil seals are called rotary shaft seal or radial lip also.

            Oil seals prevent seeping of potentially hazardous contaminants like dirt or fluid in the running machine
       
            These seals safeguard mixing of two things like oil and water
       
            In the high-intensity work environment, oil seals play a vital role
       
            Oil seals are long-lasting and sturdy
       
            Oil seals can work relentlessly if the preventive and corrective maintenance is in place
       
            Low wear and tear
       
    Types Of Component Mechanical Seals

    Seals and gaskets are sometimes custom-made to service unique applications, but we can group most seals that prevent leakage at the interface of a moving part and a stationary part into eight main types of component mechanical seals.

            Wave Spring Mechanical Seals:  Principally used for liquids of high viscosity, wave spring mechanical seals are popular for pharmaceutical, dairy, brewery and food processing applications. They are often fitted to the shaft with grub screws and in the case of high viscosity media would also have stationaries with anti-rotation pins. Some designs are specially constructed to work in shallow, confined seal housings.
       
            Water Pump Seals:  Because water is such a poor lubricant of seal faces, it is critical that water pump seals use excellent materials for applications such as shower pumps, irrigation, heating systems, swimming pools and spas.
       
            Bellows Mechanical Seals:  Compact, versatile, extremely reliable seals suitable for a wide range of applications. Available with either O Ring Mounted or Boot mounted Stationaries in DIN and Non-Din sizes. Recommended for media containing solids and are widely used in Pumps, mixers, compressors etc.
       
            Diaphragm Seals:  Featuring parallel springs, diaphragm seals are used in very diverse applications including agitators, compressors, mixers, pumps and other rotary shaft equipment. . The diaphragm in the rotary head rotary seals on the shaft so they are not affected by rotational direction.
       
            Balanced Diaphragm Seals:  Similar to Diaphragm seals but are also hydraulically balanced to reduce heat and friction at the seal interface, an innovative patented design protects against seal failure in applications where thin metal drive components are prone to cut into the retainer.
       
            Conical Mechanical Seals:  This is an extremely versatile and popular mechanical seal. Available in a wide range of materials to suit a variety of environments, they are robust and durable. However these seals are rotation dependent and come with either left hand or right hand springs.
       
            Parallel Mechanical Seals:  Parallel seals are a heavy duty single spring seal. They can use different methods of providing the face to the seal and can be supplied with either left- or right-hand wound springs. A good general-purpose seal, they are used in marine pumps, waste-water, pulp and paper and textile applications as well as refrigeration compressors.

            Multi Spring Seals:  Proven effective design, PTFE wedge styles are often used in chemical the chemical industry for arduous applications such as corrosive process fluids.
       
    What is a Double Seal

    Double (or dual) mechanical seals are designed to  ensure maximum sealing safety.  These seals  virtually eliminate leakage of the fluid or gas being handled in pumps or mixers.

            Double seals provide a level of safety/zero emissions compliance not possible with single seals. This is essential when pumping or mixing a dangerous or toxic substance.
       
            Double seals are a must-have for certain applications in many countries
       
            These seals are increasingly used by companies to meet specific environmental goals or emissions requirements.
       
    A properly installed double seal also allows for  near complete control  over the seal operating environment and fluid film over the seal faces. This factor alone can greatly maximize seal life.

    A double mechanical seal has two primary seals with a barrier or buffer fluid area in between. Each primary seal typically consists of a softer, narrower stationary face accompanied by a harder, wider rotating face. This arrangement enables the softer seal to wear while maintaining the integrity of the harder faced seal during service.

    Pump and seal manufacturers recommend double seals for a variety of reasons:

            Prevent a hazardous product from reaching the atmosphere/polluting the environment
       
            Avoid leakage of an expensive process fluid product
       
            Maximize seal life by controlling the type of fluid film on the seal faces
       
            Isolate the mechanical seal from atmospheric conditions
       
            Provide an alternative when the process fluid will not provide stable and reliable lubrication of the seal faces (such as gaseous media, viscous fluids, non-settling slurries, or fluids liable to harden)
       
            Establish a backup seal in the event of an inboard seal failure or planned equipment repair (or to identify seal failure during operation)
       
            Avoid contamination of the process media should one seal fail
       
    Mechanical Seal Questions

    Q:  What is a mechanical seal?

    A:  An end-face mechanical seal is a device used on a rotating shaft to seal fluids. It consists of two flat faces that are installed perpendicular to the shaft. One of the faces is mounted stationary to the seal chamber or housing. The other face rotates with the shaft to provide the primary seal. Axial mechanical force and fluid pressure maintain the contact between the wearable seal face  materials.

    Q:  What is a cartridge seal?

    A:  A cartridge-mounted, end-face mechanical seal (cartridge seal) is a completely self-contained unit that consists of the sealing components, a gland, sleeve, and hardware that allows the unit to be pre-assembled and preset. This feature eases installation and maintenance on rotating equipment on which axial adjustments are  required.

    Q:  What is a component seal?

    A:  Component, end-face mechanical seals (a  component seal) consist of a separate rotating member and stationary seat that mount in a gland or housing. Since they are not preset, installation and maintenance are generally more difficult requiring experienced technicians to properly install and adjust  them.

    Q:  What is an air seal?

    A:  Air seals  are non-contacting, pneumatic devices engineered for sealing rotating shafts. They protect against product loss, emissions, and contamination by using small amounts of air or inert gas that is throttled to create positive pressure and an effective  seal.

    Metal Bellows

    A metal bellows is a precision-engineered, flexible metal component that acts as a leak-tight seal– effectively separating two environments from one another. These versatile parts can convert changes in pressure, temperature, and position into linear motion and be used for rotary transmission that maintains flexible mechanical and electrical connections.

    Metal bellows products are used in a wide variety of industrial and mechanical applications and are designed to compress, extend, or bend to absorb axial and angular movement. Some examples of useful applications for metal bellows include actuators, beamlines, expansion joints, mechanical seals, pumps, valve seals, thermal expansion tanks, reservoirs, and more.
Metal bellows are available from MW Components in three varieties, which are differentiated by their fabrication method; these include edge-welded bellows, electrodeposited bellows, and hydroformed bellows. MW Components produces precision custom metal bellows using all three of these fabrication methods.

 Tensionless Relax Dryer

Tensionless Relax Dryer

    This modern Tensionless Relax Dryer is widely used for open and tubular width knit fabrics. This is provided to ensure advanced output with its easy to operate features and high durability. It comes with a fabrics infeed section having different features such as turbine-worm gear box, infeed box, axis roller, pneumatic tension device, etc. The overfeeding roller motility is designed to move frequently and reliably with its easy to operate features. This comes with the overfeeding motion that is precisely controlled by inverter.
This modern Tensionless Relax Dryer is widely used for open and tubular width knit fabrics. This is provided to ensure advanced output with its easy to operate features and high durability. It comes with a fabrics infeed section having different features such as turbine-worm gear box, infeed box, axis roller, pneumatic tension device, etc. The overfeeding roller motility is designed to move frequently and reliably with its easy to operate features. This comes with the overfeeding motion that is precisely controlled by inverter.
The web belt adopts pneumatic fastening to ensure constant tension in the stopping modes of machines. This belt adheres to pneumatic correct system for correcting the path in a reliable way. In addition to this, every belt is accurately managed by separately inverter to ensure adaptable speed. The drying chamber of the machine provides two layers filtering net having 40mesh and stainless steel design. The frame of the machine is developed using high-grade carbon steel square pipe. Moreover, temperature insulated material is also included in the machine for minimizing the energy loss.
The P structured silicon rubber seal is temperature resistant that reduces the heat loss in maximal degree and saves energy even in upper limit. This Tensionless Relax Dryer comes with a section of fabrics exit section that follows motor direction technique. The section comes with plaiting and exit devices.
Features of Tensionless Relax Dryer:

            Adoption of pneumatic direction changing valves
       
            Controlling and electromagnetic valves for advanced functionality
       
            Counter-clockwise system
       
            Electrical control section with blowers in sequence system
       
            Emergency cooling system
       
            Heat recycles system in each chamber excluding the first one
       
            Thermo oil heating method
       
            Three way valves
     
Technical Specifications of Tensionless Relax Dryer:

            After-sales Service Provided: Engineers available to service machinery overseas
       
            Automatic Grade: Automatic
       
            Brand Name: Asia Star
       
            Certification: CE
       
            Dimension(L*W*H): how many chambers
       
            exported: many countries
       
            Machine colour: jewelry blue + Crystal White
       
            Model Number: YXHG3200
       
            Place of Origin: Shandong, China (Mainland)
       
            Power(W): 50kw
       
            Voltage: 380v,60HZ
       
            Warranty: one year
       
            Weight: 50tons
       
    Tubular Compactor Machine

    Tubular compactor machine has four basic sections, the entry section, the edge driver section, the compaction section and the output section. Tubular compacting machine is used after  hydro extractor,  dewatering machine  and  textile dryer. By this compactor machine, compacting is done for control the shrinkage of the fabric. Here, different types of off line quality of the fabric are measured. In this article I will discuss about functions, parts, working principle, parameters and specification of tubular compactor machine.

    Functions of Tubular Compactor:
Following objectives are achieved by the tubular compactor. They are-

            Shrinkage of the fabric  is controlled by the compactor.
       
            Fabric width is controlled by the compactor.
       
            GSM of the fabric  is adjusted by the compacting.
       
            Fabric smoothness is achieved by the compactor.
       
            Heat setting of fabric for Lycra is done by tubular compactor.
       
    Important parts of Tubular compactor machine:

            Over feed roller
       
            Steam Sprayer
       
            Stretcher
       
            Cylinder
       
            Blanket
       
            Teflon cover
       
            Folding device
     
The fabric feed from the feed roller under a slack condition is heated and moistened by steam and delivered to double compacting units fitted one above another for compacting both sides of the tubular  knitted fabrics. Each compacting unit consists of an endless blanket, a hot metal shoe and a big hot metal cylinder, as in the case of Sanforising units. The compacted fabric is delivered on a trolley.

    Heat setting

    Heat setting  is a term used in the  textile industry  to describe a thermal process usually taking place in either a steam atmosphere or a  dry heat  environment. The effect of the process gives  fibers,  yarns  or fabric dimensional stability and, very often, other desirable attributes like higher volume, wrinkle resistance or temperature resistance. Very often, heat setting is also used to improve attributes for subsequent processes.

            Heat setting is carried out to bring the material to it’s thermal equilibrium the material wouldn’t changes it’s morphology it’s kept at that temperature for a long. ? Heat setting is also known as ANNEALING. ? The degree of set, a term often used to describe the extent of heat setting is the measure of how close the material has moved to a thermal equilibrium. A 100% set material is considered to be at its thermal equilibrium at a given temperature.
       
            Mechanism of Heat Setting ? The setting temperature used is above Tg. In heat setting, inter-chain bonds, such as hydrogen and dipole bonds, break. This allows the molecular chains to move and adopt new, stress-free positions. New intermolecular bonds then form with the fabric in a relaxed condition at the setting temperature. After cooling, the polymer molecules in the filaments become frozen in place. The new bonds are stable up to the heat setting temperature. The reorganized internal polymer structure, and the material’s dimensions, will be stable.
       
            Objectives The objectives of heat setting processes include structure homogenization and the elimination of internal tensions within the fibre resulting in reduced shrinkage, improved dimensional stability, reduced creasing propensity and reduced edge-curl in woven and knitted fabrics. To this extent, the process may be better described as thermal relaxation. Heat setting changes not only the mechanical, but also the dyeing properties of man-made fibres. The principle is based on heating the fibre within a fibre-specific temperature range which is limited at the upper end by the melting point (softening range) and the respective glass transition temperature (necessary to break the secondary bonds) at the lower end.
       
    Parts, Functions and Working Process of Stenter Machine

    Stenter is the most expensive and important fabric drying and finishing machine. Stenter is a machine or apparatus for stretching or stentering fabrics. It is also known as a ‘tenter’ in the woollen industry. The purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and width to pre-determine dimensions and also for heat setting and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade variation is adjusted. The main function of the stenter is to stretch the fabric widthwise and to recover the uniform width.

    Stenter machine consists of two endless auto-lubricated driven chains, typically 40 to 60 m in length carrying pins or clips to hold the fabric edges while passing through a number of hot-air chambers (3–5, each of about 3 m). Hot air is directed onto the fabric equally from above and below. A stenter has the provision for overfeeding the fabric to allow required shrinkage during  heat setting of fabric  while the width is increased to the precisely specified value by the chains. The use of clip stenter has declined because of the difficulty of applying overfeed. The stenter speed ranges from 10 m/min for heavyweight furnishing fabrics to 100 m/min for lightweight dress-goods.

    Open Width Compacting Machine
Open width compactor machine is used for compacting the open form fabric. Here,  slitting machine  is used for open the fabric from the tubular form. Open width compacting machine is a combination machine of pin plate stenter and felt compactor, it is used for the processing of 100% cotton, wool, hemp natural fabrics and chemical fabrics in open width form. It is also used in continuous spreading, centering, pinning fabric selvedge on needles, widening with overfeeding and correction of the weft and width, steaming, gumming, drying,  trimming  fabrics selvedge, steaming, calendaring, cooling and rolling-up with automatic alignment of the fabrics roll edge or folding in carriage. The open width compacting machine allows to get high shrinkage values. The compacting is suitable to treat 100% cotton knitted fabric type jersey, pique, interlock, plush, rib fabric, dyed and or printed fabrics and union fabrics. Working width can be 2400mm. In this article I will discuss about functions, parts, working principle, parameters and specifications of open width compacting machine.

 Will Cutting Wood With a Diamond Blade Hurt It?

Will Cutting Wood With a Diamond Blade Hurt It?

    Diamond saw blades are made with teeth that have been coated in a strong carbon grit mixture. These saw blades are designed to cut through materials that would wear away normal blades, including stone, clay, concrete and similar substances. Diamond blades are usually designed for these tough materials. Trying to cut wood with a diamond saw might not lead to good results.

    Diamond Saw Damage

    Diamond saws are designed to be the most durable blades for the most difficult saw projects. You will not need to worry about damaging the diamond saw blade itself. These blades are made to withstand stone materials. The soft fibers of wood boards will not hurt the blade itself. The danger is in how the diamond blade treats the wood itself.
   
        General Purpose of Diamond Blades
   
        General purpose dry diamond saw blades can be used for several materials, but reconsider before using them to cut wood. The harsh grit of the diamond blade can cut tile and masonry with straight lines. When applied to wood, however, the blades might create a rough cut, ripping apart fibers, or might make it too easy to create crooked cuts. In most cases, it is better to use a traditional steel blade for wood.
   
        Wood Cutting Blades
   
        Carbide-tipped saw blades are designed especially for wood. These are similar to diamond saw blades, but are designed with teeth and coatings that will make it easier to cut wood, especially hardwoods. If you do want to use a diamond saw blade, ensure that you use a carbide version that is specifically designed for wood.
   
        Exceptions
 
        Some exceptions exist to using diamond blades on boards. For example, fiber cement board comes in planks and might resemble wood, but it is actually made from cementitious materials. Do not assume that the board shape means it is made of wood. Diamond saws work well when cutting fiber cement and similar materials for construction products.
   
    How to Cut Concrete

    Concrete—most of us have a love-hate relationship with it. Love it when we need a permanent, heavy-duty, weather-resistant surface. Hate it when we gotta repair, replace or cut the stuff.

    The prospect of cutting concrete can be daunting, but it doesn’t have to be. Most of the battle can be won by simply selecting the right tools. Try a concrete saw. Following is a rundown of common concrete-cutting tasks—from dinky to monster-sized—and the best tools and techniques for handling them.

        Blades made of corundum may be cheap, but on a per-cut basis, they’re more expensive than diamond-tipped blades. If you rent a diamond circular saw blade, many rental centers will measure its perimeter before and after and charge you by the 1/1,000th inch used.
   
    You can make small rough cuts using a cold chisel and sledgehammer (Photos 2 and 3), but the better choice is a circular saw with a special blade. 

    Dry-cutting diamond blades  most often have a serrated or toothed rim (Photo 1) to help cool the blade and eject waste. They work best when you make a series of gradually deeper cuts to avoid overheating the blade. The downside to dry-cutting masonry is the tornado of fine dust it creates. If you cut concrete indoors, seal off the area with plastic and duct tape. Seal all duct openings as well.

    Wet-cutting diamond blades  can have either teeth or a smooth, continuous perimeter. Water not only helps cool and lubricate the blade but also keeps the dust down. These cut the fastest and cleanest, but they require a special saw that can both distribute water and be safely used around it. As a make-do option, you can plug your saw into a GFCI-protected extension cord and have a helper carefully direct a small stream of water just in front of your saw as it cuts.

    Diamond Blade Buying Guide
With all of the different saw blades available on the market today, it can be overwhelming when purchasing a new blade. To get the quality of cut you expect with the best performance from your saw, it is important to have the most appropriate blade for the project at hand.

    Diamond saw blades come in a wide range of sizes, bond types, and uses with quality and performance that can vary dramatically from blade to blade. Whether you have a tile saw, masonry saw, concrete saw, or other type of saw,  selecting the right blade  will help you get the  job done right.

    Diamond blades are available with different rim or edge configurations including  segmented, continuous, and turbo  with the type of rim affecting how the blade cuts. The segments or rim are fixed to the blade through the process of brazing, laser welding, or sintering.

    Segmented blades typically have  medium to hard bonds  for a range of wet and dry cutting applications. While these blades can offer a relatively smooth cut with a fast cutting speed, chipping may still occur. They are durable and have a long blade life compared to other blades.
They are ideal for cutting  marble and granite slabs, concrete, asphalt, brick, block, and other building materials. They are available in a wide selection of diameters from small to large and particularly dominate the 12” diameter and larger market. These blades are commonly used with masonry saws, concrete saws, and circular saws.
The spaces of air that separate the segments are called gullets. The  gullets  are there to  improve air flow, dissipate heat, and remove slurry  from the cut, helping to maintain the blade’s cutting performance. The size and shape of the gullets vary from blade to blade and will depend on the type of material the blade designed to cut.
For example, blades for cutting asphalt tend to have wider, U-shaped gullets while blades for concrete tend to have narrower, U-shaped gullets. The more abrasive the material, the wider the slot should be to allow for better heat dissipation. Other gullet shapes include keyhole, teardrop, and angled. Segmented diamond blades with narrow slots are generally for marble and granite while keyhole shaped slot blades tend to be for general purpose.

    Circular Saw and Blades: A Basic Overview

    A circular saw is either a hand held or table mounted tool used for cutting many types of materials such as wood, plastic, metal and masonry. All circular saws have a disc or blade with teeth on their edges. The motor on the saw enables the blade to spin at high speeds, enabling the teeth to smoothly cut through materials.

    There are a couple of different factors when choosing a circular saw. First, what is it being used for? As with any purchase, we get what we pay for. Therefore, in order to ensure that tools will last more than 20 years, it is important to choose one with a strong motor. A strong motor will ensure top speed of the blade when cutting through a variety of hard to softer materials.

    Because tools are standard purchases for the home, costs are generally known and standard. If you are not aware of amps and horse power as a factor in your decision making, cost could just as well be a reliable indicator. For a few hundred dollars, one should be confident that their tool will last a long time.

    Now that you are set up with the saw, the interesting part is determining which  saw blade  to use for a particular job. Selecting the proper blade for the job will not only allow the tools to perform better and cleaner but also safer.

    Things You should Know about Diamond Drill Bits

    Diamond drill bits  are perfect for drilling holes through hard materials such as these:

            Glass, sea glass, beach glass, fused glass, sheet glass
       
            Stone, gemstones, rock, pebbles, minerals
       
            Ceramic, porcelain, tiles, glazed pottery, plates, china
       
            Shell, antler, bone, fossil
       
            Very hard woods
       
    For very small precision holes for jewellery making purposes and precision holes in all glass, precious stone or porcelain tile we recommend using the  small diamond drill bits  which have a solid, flat end, or tip. These are available in sizes as small as 0.75mm - 3mm. Take a look at the below picture.

    DO NOT  use diamond drill bits on metal, soft wood, plaster or soft plastic. These materials are too soft and will cause the diamonds on your drill bit to clog up. When drilling holes in soft metals, plastics and wood use  High Speed Steel drill bits (HSS)  and for drilling holes in hard metals use  Carbide Drill Bits

    Diamond is the hardest material, and therefore anything else can be cut or drilled with it. If you are cutting or drilling through very hard materials such as Sapphire then bear in mind you will need a lot of patience and perhaps more drill bits than you would if you were drilling a hole through glass or Opal.

    As with all diamond drill bits you should use water as a lubricant and coolant. Being hollow, allows the water to flow up inside and around the inner core of these drill bits as you are drilling, helping to keep the drill bit cool and removing the debris. 

    Diamond core drills are available in sizes  1mm - 3mm  and  3.5mm - 60mm  and larger.

    For drilling tiny holes in plates, glass, fused glass and for thin pieces of sea glass we recommend using a  small diamond core drill. These are available in sizes from as small as 1mm- 3mm.

    Diamond Core bits also come in a  range with a 2.35mm shank

    As you drill, the water swirls around inside the core. This helps prolong the life of your drill bit and helps to prevent any cracking or shattering of the material you're drilling.

 Benefits of Walnuts

Benefits of Walnuts

    1. Good for the brain

    Walnuts contain important phytochemicals, as well as high amounts of polyunsaturated fats that offer potential benefits for both brain health and function. Omega-3 fatty acids play a part by helping reduce oxidative stress in the brain but also by  helping to improve brain signalling and neurogenesis, which is how new neurons are formed.

    As well as high levels of beneficial fats, other important nutrients such as vitamin E, folate and the protective phytochemical,  ellagic acid, are all found in walnuts, and contribute to  its neuroprotective and memory enhancing properties.

    Discover the  10 foods that can boost your brainpower.

    2. Mood-boosting

    Omega-3 fatty acids are important for the development and function of the central nervous system.  Promising research and clinical evidence  indicate omega-3 fatty acids could well play a role in certain mood disorders.

    Although, a  study  specifically evaluating the effect of walnuts reported mixed findings, the inclusion of walnuts in the diet of non-depressed, young healthy males did appear to improve mood.

    3. Heart healthy

    The Journal of Nutrition  reports that consumption of walnuts may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and that walnut oil provides  more favourable benefits to endothelial function, which is the lining of the inside of our blood and lymphatic vessels. There has also been research into whole walnuts, and how they can  improve cholesterol levels  and markers for inflammation, which is also connected to a reduced risk of heart disease.

    A study by the  British Journal of Nutrition  found that those who consumed nuts more than four times a week reduced their risk of coronary heart disease by as much as 37 per cent.

    4. May support weight loss

    There has been some evidence to demonstrate that consuming walnuts in the place of other foods  does not cause weight gain,  even though they are energy rich, offering a great snack alternative for those looking to manage their weight.

    5. Support a healthy digestive system

    A recent animal study has shown consuming walnuts can  enrich the gut microbiota, the community of beneficial microbes which live in our intestines,  and in particular increase strains of beneficial probiotic bacteria. This has been repeated in  humans  with reports of increases in beneficial strains and especially those which produce butyrate, a by-product which supports the health of the gut.

    This is the right way to eat walnuts to get maximum benefits

    Walnuts are known for improving brain function and boosting memory. Apart from this, walnuts carry a long list of lesser-known health benefits as well. Do you know that the way you consume walnuts also decides how beneficial they are? Well, there is a certain way to eat walnuts with which you can gain maximum benefits.

    Though walnuts can be eaten as it is by removing the outer shell, the best way to have them is by soaking overnight. Just soak 2-4 walnut pieces overnight in a cup of water and have them first thing in the morning. Soaking walnuts helps in reducing the bad cholesterol levels in the body. They are also easier to digest as compared to normal walnuts. Your body can absorb nutrients from soaked walnuts in a much better way.

    Walnuts are indeed a superfood, as they are loaded with carbohydrates, protein, good fat, fibre, vitamins, calcium, iron and potassium. Apart from improving good cholesterol levels and keeping the heart healthy, walnuts are also beneficial for people with diabetes. Walnuts are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids and help prevent stress and anxiety. They also have alpha-linolenic acid, which makes your bones and teeth stronger.

    As walnuts are a rich source of iron, calcium, potassium and zinc, they help in boosting your metabolism. It further aids in efficient weight loss. Walnuts contain good fats which don’t add to your weight or calories. Their fibre content also keeps you full for longer and prevents frequent hunger pangs.

    If you find eating walnuts raw a little boring, then there are several interesting ways to have them. Just crush a few roasted walnuts and include them in your paratha stuffing. This will make your paratha crunchier and also add an extra nutty taste.

    Walnuts can also be added, to protein shakes and smoothies by crushing them along with other ingredients. You can also make a homemade walnut chutney or dip by using walnuts, garlic, ginger, lemon juice, oil and salt and pepper. A little bit of mint can be added, to the chutney as well.

    For kids who are fussy eaters, this trick will work wonders. Just mix some cocoa powder and honey. Throw in some walnuts in the paste and coat them well. Let them dry and store in an airtight jar.

        The right way to eat walnuts for maximum health benefits
   
    Walnuts, the brain-shaped nuts are famous for boosting memory and brain function. They are rich in fibre, vitamins, carbohydrates, protein and iron, which makes them a super healthy addition to our daily diet. When eaten in the right way, walnuts have many health benefits. Today in this article, we will discuss the right way to eat walnuts and the easy way to include them in your daily diet.
The right way to eat walnuts
When it comes to consuming this super healthy nut, there is no right or wrong way. Just including it in your diet in any form is great for your health. Here is the best way to consume walnuts.
Soaking the walnuts overnight and then consuming them in the morning is one of the best ways to consume walnuts. To do this, take 2-4 pieces of walnuts and soak them in a cup of water overnight. Have them the first thing next morning.
Having soaked walnuts helps in reducing the bad cholesterol in the body. These are also easier to digest as compared to normal walnuts. It is easier for your body to absorb nutrients from soaked walnuts.
Easy ways you can include walnuts in your diet
Walnut chutney/spread/dip
Take some roasted walnuts, garlic, lemon juice, oil, pepper and salt and grind them together to make walnut dip at home. You can also add some walnuts while making the hummus.
Add them to stuffing
You can simply toast some walnuts and add them to the stuffing of your sandwich or paranthas.
Use them for garnishing
Toast some walnuts, grind them and keep them in an airtight container. You can use them to garnish your salads and desserts.
Add them to your smoothie
While you make your smoothie, grind some walnuts with other ingredients. Not just your smoothie will taste better but its nutritional value will also be enhanced.

    How to remove the skin from walnut kernels

    Not all  walnuts  are the same. Depending on the variety, they can have a  sweeter  or more  tangy, even bitter taste.

    When you start reading a recipe, you may find that the dish you want to prepare, uses walnuts without the  skin  covering the  kernel.

    This skin, which gives walnuts their slightly bitter and astringent taste, can be easily removed in a few minutes.

    To peel the kernels, put them to  soak  in a bowl with some  hot or warm water.    When the liquid has cooled down, drain the walnuts and peel them. The skin, which has been lifted off by the heat of the water, can be easily removed by rubbing the surface with a clean  dishcloth  or by using a  sharp knife  or  tweezers.

    Another faster method is to put the shelled nuts in a pan of  simmering water.  When the water starts to boil, blanch the walnuts for 1 minute and then, remove them from the heat. Drain the walnuts, allow them to cool and then, skin them.

    Lastly, there is one other method in which the shelled nuts are placed on a tray lined with greaseproof paper and put in the  oven pre-heated to 180 degrees  for a maximum of 5 minutes. After taking them out of the oven and allowing them to cool down, the skin will come away easily.

    In any case, even if the recipe calls for it,  you can always use unpeeled walnuts, which will retain their characteristic flavour, after all.

    How to Toast Walnuts
These two methods for  How to Toast Walnuts  are incredibly fast and easy! Plain or coated walnuts are quickly cooked in a skillet or baked in the oven for a simple and crunchy snack. Add these roasted nuts to a variety of recipes for the best flavor and texture.

    Walnuts become buttery, golden, and ultra crunchy after toasting them in the oven.

    The high heat brings out the natural nutty aroma that adds a delightful flavor to  salads,  desserts, and  side dish  recipes.

    Walnuts can definitely be eaten raw, but roasting them can really take their flavor game over the top!

    Add them to a  Shaved Brussels Sprouts Salad, mix them into some  Banana Nut Muffins, or sprinkle them on  Overnight Oats.

    Taking the extra 10 minutes to pop them in the oven is definitely worth the time. (Just like when  toasting pine nuts,  roasting almonds,  or making  toasted pecans!)

    The basic steps for making roasted walnuts are simple to follow.  Please see the recipe card below for more detailed ingredient amounts.

    COVER WITH SEASONING

    Toss the nuts in any butter, oil, or seasoning ingredients you want to add before roasting.

    BAKE IN OVEN

    If you are making more than 1 cup of roasted walnuts at a time using the oven is a must.

    Line a large, lightly colored, rimmed  baking sheet  with parchment paper.

    Spread the walnuts out in a single layer on the sheet.

    Toast them in the oven at  350°F for 7-10 minutes, stirring occasionally, until golden brown.

    COOK ON THE STOVE

    When toasting a smaller batch of walnuts cooking them in a skillet is a faster and easier way to do it.

    Preheat a medium or large, non-stick, dry skillet over medium-low heat.

    Place 1 cup or less of walnuts in the skillet in a single layer.

    Toast  for 3-5 minutes, stirring occasionally.

    You’ll know the walnuts are done toasting when you begin to smell their nutty aroma.

 Where to Get Welding Gas & How Much Should You Pay?

Where to Get Welding Gas & How Much Should You Pay?

    IIn past decades, stick welders did not have much information about gases with regards to welding. This whole concept changed with the invention of TIG and MIG welding machines and their constant rise in usage. Gas is now considered a common commodity in most welding workshops. But how much does welding gas cost? If you’re just setting up shop, you’ve come to the right place. We’ll break down where to get welding gas and the costs associated with it.

    Welding gases can be outsourced from various vendors depending on your location and the type of gas you require. Most vendors provide the option of free delivery for local orders and charge a few bucks for regional deliveries.

    Welders use welding gases for several reasons, with the main one being shielding the arc from impurities such as dust. Gases are also used to heat metals during welding and to keep the welds clean.

    Inert gases are known for not causing any changes to the materials. They also remain in the same state during welding. This ability makes welding more comfortable without weakening or distorting the welds. Reactive gases are the opposite of inert gases. They react by changing their states and causing changes to the materials. This property makes these gases ideal for enhancing the fusion of metals.

    What is a CO2 Tank Cylinder?

    You might have noticed that most bars and pubs use a CO2 tank cylinder, where the drink is to be served. CO2 tank cylinders are used to pressurize the beer draft system. CO2 tank cylinder which is used for brewing, are mostly made from aluminum. They also come in steel tank is a variety is sizes. 

    The quality of a CO2 tank cylinder should be really good. It all depends on what type of tank you have because it will surely affect the taste of your drink. Once you get the idea of how to use your cylinder properly, you can easily make new beverages with lots of bubbles, and you can also design plans for your beverages, keeping safety in mind of course. 

    Well here is the perfect answer to your question. CO2 gas forced into this cylinder, the more it’s forced, and the more inner molecules get close to each other. The molecules inside the cylinder get so close that crowding of gas happens and the movement of the molecules become very slow. When the molecules slow down, they lose heat energy and hence get cold. 

    When the temperature reaches 880 psi (pounds per square inch), the molecules release enough heat energy to get cold enough to turn into liquid. When these liquids go through some temperature changes, like an increase in temperature, the volume of the liquids expands. In the liquid state, CO2 can be stored in it a lot more than in the gas state. In short, you get to store a huge amount of CO2 in the tank cylinder. 

    Pressure plays a huge role in this cylinder. It’s all about the pressure; it is the key thing to note. To provide a push for your draft beer system, the pressure has to be nearly 880 psi. Initially, at this pressure, only CO2 is stored inside the tank cylinder, but once you open the lid of the tank, some of the CO2 is released in the form of vapors and turns back to its previous state that is gas. This gas is then allowed to flow into the gas side of your draft beer system. 

    Unlike growlers, CO2 tanks don’t have a good system of insulation. They have to be handled with a lot of care. A sudden temperature increase can expand the liquid inside it; hence, it can make the tank so hot that it can burn your fingers. So safety measures should be taken properly. This can be done by having a CO2 regulator; the regulator controls the high pressure of the gas to a manageable and prevents the tank from heating up drastically.

    Nitrogen gas applications

    Nitrogen is not reactive and it is excellent for blanketing and is often used as purging gas. It can be used to remove contaminants from process streams through methods such as stripping and sparging. Due to its properties it can be used for protection of valuable products against harmful contaminants. It also enables safe storage, usage of flammable compounds and can help prevent combustible dust explosions.
The applications of nitrogen compounds are naturally extremely widely varied due to the huge size of this class: hence, only applications of pure nitrogen itself will be considered here. Two-thirds of nitrogen produced by industry is sold as the gas and the remaining one-third as the liquid. The gas is mostly used as an inert atmosphere whenever the oxygen in the air would pose a fire, explosion, or oxidising hazard. Some examples include:
Food industry
Nitrogen gas is also used to provide an unreactive atmosphere. It is used in this way to preserve foods. As a modified atmosphere, pure or mixed with carbon dioxide, to nitrogenate and preserve the freshness of packaged or bulk foods (by delaying rancidity and other forms of oxidative damage like changing colours). Pure nitrogen as food additive is labelled in the European Union with the E number E941.
Light bulbs industry
Bulbs should not be filled with air since hot tungsten wire will combust in presence of oxygen. You can’t maintain vacuum either or external atmospheric pressure will break the glass. So, they must be filled with non-reactive gas like nitrogen. We can use inert gases like argon or helium instead of Nitrogen, but they are more expensive & rarer than nitrogen. 
Fire suppression systems
Fire suppression is achieved by reducing the oxygen concentration where the fire will extinguish, while remaining at a level acceptable for human exposure for a short period of time.
Stainless steel manufacturing
There are various instances when nitrogen can be added to steel during steelmaking such as melting, the ladle processing and the casting operations. Nitrogen effect on hardness, formability, strain ageing and impact properties.
Tire filling systems
Nitrogen is used to inflate race car and aircraft tires, reducing the problems caused by moisture and oxygen in natural air. Nitrogen is less likely to migrate through tire rubber than oxygen, which means that your tire pressures will remain more stable over the long term. That means more consistent inflation pressures during a use as the tires heat up.
Aircraft fuel systems
In some aircraft fuel systems nitrogen is used to reduce fire hazard. 

    Welding Gas Cylinder (Sizes & Tank Specifications)

    MIG and TIG welding methods are two of the most popular ways to weld materials. They offer great control and precision and can be used on a wide variety of materials. However, for relatively inexperienced users, these methods could pose a very big problem.

    The one thing you would not want while welding is to run out of gas. As a result, you should have an idea of the time you will spend while welding. Choosing a gas cylinder is no easy task especially if you are still coming to grips with welding. Hence, in this article, we will be helping you choose a gas cylinder that will fit your needs.

    Argon is an inert gas and can maintain a stable fire arc, which makes it a very popular choice in MIG and TIG welding. However, Argon/CO2 mixture is also commonly used as well as CO2 alone. This is because pure argon is more expensive as compared to a mixture of Argon and Carbon Dioxide. Proper ventilation is a must when working with these gases as they can remove oxygen.

    However, AR/CO2 mix will splatter more compared to pure Argon. Using high inductance (decreases short-circuiting and lengthens arc time) is better for CO2 than for Argon. 75% CO2 25% Argon or 85%CO2 15% Argon is the widely used mixing ratio. If you don’t have issues with your weld not being the cleanest, this mix will suit you.

    Compared to Argon, Helium has better thermal conductivity and higher ionization potential. Thus, it is possible to achieve a lot of heat when working with Helium. The density of helium is lower compared to Argon and it is possible to obtain higher flow rates.

    As a result, a helium-argon mixture might provide better welding speed at the cost of stability. Also, Helium mixtures are quite costly as well but the increased productivity makes up for it. Helium is the most popular shielding gas to use with Aluminum and Stainless Steel.

    How to Handle and Store Acetylene Cylinders

    Unlike most industrial gases, Acetylene is a type of gas that is dissolved into a solvent to keep it safer and more stable. Due to its chemical composition it is an extremely useful gas for the chemical industry but for commercial cylinder applications, is mainly used in  cutting and welding processes. It has a burning temperature up to 5,700℉ (3,148℃), when burnt with oxygen. Also, pure samples of the gas can decompose violently. Due to all these reasons, critical understanding and steps need to be taken when handling and storing acetylene gas cylinders. This post provides information you need to know on the topic.

    A Brief about Acetylene Cylinders

    While many people may logically conclude that acetylene is stored in standard high pressure cylinders which are hollow in construction and gas storage use, this point is not true.  Acetylene cylinders  are a separate, dedicated and special type of cylinder that is used to store and transport the gas above pressures of 5 psi (.3 bar). A standard acetylene cylinder has a length of 30” (76.2 cm) and has a 10” (24.4 cm) diameter. The cylinder’s construction comprises the following materials and components:

    1. The exterior of the cylinder is all steel in construction.

    2. The interior of the cylinder body is constructed of either a fire resistant or monolithic filler material known as the ‘porous mass’.

    3. The porous material is saturated with acetone or dimethyl formamide (DMF).

    4. Older cylinders have fuse plugs in the bottom of the cylinder.

    5. The top of the cylinder comprises brass valves, a metal cap, and often safety fuse plugs.

    Knowing the composition and traits of an acetylene cylinder will help a user understand and safely handle and store acetylene cylinders.

 Parts of a Door Handle

Parts of a Door Handle

    Most people turn door handles every day and never even give a second thought to the parts of a door handle until they need or choose to replace part or all of the handle. If you're going to DIY your door hardware, it can be useful to know more about door handle components first. The parts of a door handle include knobs/levers, latch mechanisms, strike plates, boxes and cylinder locks.

    The most obviously noticeable part of the door handle is the  knob  or  lever  that actually allows the door to open. Knobs are generally round, although they may come in other shapes, and they open the door by turning, whereas levers (also called lever handles) open the door by pushing down. While it's pretty hard to  install a door handle  in the wrong direction, it's important to pay attention to the direction of a lever when installing one.

    While not the most important of door knob parts, a  rosette  is the plate behind the door handle or lever. While the rosettes in most homes are simple metal pieces, they can be elegantly detailed, and some door handles, particularly those with vintage designs, don't have a rosette at all.

    The Latch Mechanism

    Perhaps the most important of all door handle parts is the latch mechanism. This is the spring-loaded piece that protrudes past the door, keeping the door closed. While most latch mechanisms use a retracting  tubular latch  mechanism that goes in when the handle is turned, some doors, like closets, use a  ball latch. A ball latch doesn't retract when the handle is turned but instead is simply pushed open or closed in order to catch it on the specially indented strike plate.

    The latch itself is generally fitted to the door with a mortise plate, which provides additional security and makes installation more easy so the latch is properly situated in the door in order to catch on the  door frame  when the door is closed. Additionally, the mortise plate makes the latch mechanism look much more attractive than simply having a floating latch stick out the side of the door.

    When the door is pushed closed, the  strike plate  is the metal piece that the latch is pushed into on the door jam. The box is the hole where the latch fits in, which may or may not be fitted with a strike plate.

    Ball latches require a special, shallow strike plate, but most retracting tubular latches don't require a strike plate because they will still retract and go into the box when pushed against a door frame. That being said, strike plates make the door function more smoothly, look more attractive and protect the door frame from damage caused by repeatedly being pressed on by the latch.

    Push Pull Door Handle 

    The initial idea of push-pull door-handle is to ease opening of the door simply by mounting the push-pull door-handle, without any interference with the door, lock or doorjamb. installation is simple, the same as classic handle.
classical opening of the door takes place by pressing the handle and then either pulling or pushing the door away. push-pull door-handle does not require vertical pressure on the handle, since it is replaced by the movement of handle in the direction of opening the door, thereby opening is much smoother and more comfortable.
the procedure is the same, when we are closing the door. handle is pulled or pushed in the direction of movement of the door, so the door closes.
this is particulary usefull, when our hands are not free (if we are carrying different objects, pushing wheelchair or bed, or we are limited by disability). it is already sufficient that we lean with the body to the handle and push the door.
it would also be possible to use this concept on fire doors, where push-pull door-handle could replace special hardware, that lets you push-open the door.
it is also important that push-pull door-handle preserves function of the classic handle whit a vertical movement.

    structure, function:

    the handle consists of two parts, internal, technical part, which is placed in the stem of door-handle, and holder, which can be designed in many different ways.
handle is classicaly mounted on the door, with no additional interventions to the door or lock.
the mechanism that enables innovative action is robust and assembled from a small number of parts. it consists of a central rotating axis, cubical framework for mounting other components, two leverages for trigerring a rotation of axis, and an outer casing.
push-pull door-handle works by pushing or pulling handle, which activates individual leverage and triggers the rotation of the axis. this opens the lock.
the spring of the lock returns the handle to its original position.

    design:

    the handle is divided into two parts, the mechanism for opening, which is built in stem of the door-handle, and holder. the concept of push-pull handle allows the application of different types of handles, making it easier to use in different ambience.
grip of the handle is shaped accordingly to its application and technical requirements.
the presented design is minimalistic, robust and easy to manufacture.

    In its robustness it hides well planned ergonomics, enables good hand position at all three possible manipulations with push-pull door-handle: press down, pull towards you, and pushing away.

    Everything You Need to Know About Patio Door Handles

    Are Patio Door Handles Universal?

    Patio door handles  are not universal and will require you to check some key measurements to ensure a replacement sliding patio door handle will fit correctly. Measuring a sliding patio door handle is done the same way as any other uPVC door handle.

    Are Patio Door Handles a Standard Size?

    As mentioned above, patio door handles are not a standard size and require two critical measurements to ensure it is compatible. Let’s go through the steps on how to measure your patio door handle in the next section.

    How to Measure for a New Patio Door Handle?

    Now let’s move on to measuring your sliding patio door handle. When measuring a door handle you only need to check two measurements. These measurements are as follows.

            Backplate Fixing Centres – The centre to centre of the screw fixing screws.
       
            PZ Centres – The centre of the square spindle hole to the centre of the circular part of the key hole.
       
    You can fix a loose door handle very easily. Most of the time you will find it’s only the screws which have come loose and need tightening up. Simply take a Philips screwdriver and tighten the two screws on the inside handle. If your problem still persists this may be because the threads are damaged and may require a replacement patio door handle.

    How Do You Replace a Patio Door Handle?

    Replacing a patio door handle is as simple as removing two screws. With the measuring complete which we covered above. You can now just remove the two screws from the inside handle and the door handle should just come away from the door.

    Assuming you have already ordered your new patio door handle, you can just slide the new handle back on to the door and secure it with the fixing screws provided.

    Types of door handles

    If you’ve searched for “types of door handles” on Google and you’ve come across our article, you’re in for a treat – a detailed and informative guide on the different types of door handles. Maybe you’re planning to renovate your home or office space and are wondering which door handle will be the perfect fit, or maybe you are simply intrigued about the variety of door handles available.

    Perhaps you have old, worn door handles which need to go as soon as possible, and need to be replaced by beautiful new ones, however, the choice of door handles seems to be quite overwhelming. At  Ironmongery Experts, we’ll be able to help you choose the ideal door handles for your home, and hopefully, make the process of picking the right door handles a bit easier.

    There are three main types of door handles: lever handles, pull handles and door knobs. Whether you want to redecorate your grade listed property with a  From the Anvil Tudor lever handle  or you want to keep up with this year’s décor trends with a  matte black door handle  – our door handles come in a wide variety of styles and finishes, making it simpler to meet any and all of your requirements; and are the perfect finishing touch to any home décor.

    Lever handles, also known as door levers, are the most common type of door handle used in residential houses and commercial and public buildings. Lever handles can be split into two groups: lever handles on backplate and lever handles on rose.

    Lever handles on a backplate  are traditional door handles which sit on a backplate. These can have three operating mechanisms, including lever lock, lever bathroom and lever latch.

    Lever lock.

    This mechanism features a keyhole to operate the door handle, providing security and privacy and is often combined with a mortice lock.

    Lever bathroom.

    Often used on bathroom and bedroom doors, where some privacy is needed. This mechanism features a thumb turn lock, which can be locked and unlocked easily from the inside by turning the snib but can also be unlocked from the outside by turning the coin slot, in case of an emergency.

    Lever latch.

    This type of mechanism is used for interior doors that don’t require to be locked. It’s a simple to use mechanism, which only requires the door handle to be pushed down for the door to open.

    Pros and Cons of Stainless Steel Handles

    Stainless steel is one of the most common materials in which handles are made. Whether you’re shopping for a ball handle, a pull handle, adjustable handles, or crank handles, you can probably find it in stainless steel. Stainless steel handles have pros and cons Below is a breakdown of some of the pros and cons of stainless steel handles.

    Pro: Corrosion Resistance

    It shouldn’t come as a surprise to learn that stainless steel handles are resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel is an iron alloy that contains chromium (as well as nickel in some types of stainless steel). The presence of this chromium protects it from corrosion. You can use a stainless steel handle in a humid environment without fear of it rusting or corroding.

    Pro: Aesthetics

    Most people will agree that stainless steel handles look nice. They offer a consistent bright and shiny appearance. Other types of handles often have a dull or matte appearance, resulting in a lower level of aesthetics. Stainless steel handles offer a higher level of aesthetics thanks to their bright and shiny appearance that’s consistent throughout.

    Pro: Nonmagnetic

    Stainless steel handles are also nonmagnetic. Why does this matter? Some applications require the use of nonmagnetic handles. If a handle produces a magnetic field, it may attract other magnetic objects nearby. Alternatively, magnetic handles may damage certain electronics. Stainless steel handles are nonmagnetic, though, so they won’t cause these or other problems.

    Con: Cost

    While stainless steel handles aren’t particularly expensive, they tend to cost more than handles made of other materials. You can find handles made of plastic and other similar synthetic materials. These handles typically cost less than their stainless steel counterparts.

    Con: Weight

    Weight is a potential downside of stainless steel handles. Stainless steel handles typically weigh more than those made of other materials. They are denser and heavier than most other materials, so they usually weigh more. If weight is a concern, you may want to choose a handle made of a different material.

 Home Slaughtering and Processing of Beef

Home Slaughtering and Processing of Beef

    A beef animal selected for slaughter should be healthy and in thrifty condition. Keep the animal off feed 24 hours before slaughter, but provide free access to water.

    Do not run or excite the animal prior to slaughter because this may cause poor bleeding and give the carcass a bloody appearance.

    The weather, especially expected temperatures the few days following slaughter, is extremely important. Night temperatures should be 32°F or lower for the carcass to chill properly without refrigeration.

    The meat will spoil if improperly chilled and stored during warm weather. Also, during extremely cold weather, the meat should be protected from freezing by covering it with a clean cover.

    Slaughter should be done in a dry, clean, dust-free area. A well-drained grassy area is recommended.

    Take precautions during slaughter, chilling, and processing to keep the carcass and cuts clean and free from contamination. Use clean equipment, keep hands clean, wear clean clothing, and keep work and storage areas clean.

    The carcass can be chilled without refrigeration by hanging it in a dry, clean building. Freedom from odors or contamination is essential.

    Most meat spoilage and off-odors and flavors can be attributed to one or more of the following causes:

            Improper chilling of the carcass. The internal temperature of the round and other thick parts should be lowered to 40-45°F within 24 hours after slaughter.
       
            Adsorption of off-odors. When the carcass is chilled and aged in an area with any odor (manure, gasoline, paint, musty odor, etc) the carcass will absorb it.
       
            Poor sanitation during slaughter, chilling, and processing. This contamination with microorganisms causes off-odors, off-flavors, and spoilage.
       
            Improper freezing and storage of frozen meat. Packaged meat should be quick-frozen and stored at 0° to 5°F. Home freezers are for storage of products already frozen, not for quick-freezing large quantities of meat. Small quantities, preferably less than 25 pounds, can be satisfactorily frozen at home by placing meat in the freezer with at least one inch of space between each package.
       
    The minimum required items of equipment for home slaughtering are as follows.

            Stunning device such as 22 caliber rifle.
       
            Block and tackle, chain hoist, or tractor equipped with hydraulic lift.
       
            Beef spreader (singletree equipped with hooks on both ends and a ring in the center will do).
       
            24- or 28-inch meat saw.
       
            6-inch sharp skinning knife, 6-inch boning knife, and 8-inch butcher knife.
       
            10- or 12-inch steel bucket to hold water for washing hands.
       
            Ample clean water and clean hand towels.
       
    How to  Stun  Animal

    Kill the animal as humanely as possible. If a rifle is used, exercise recommendations for safe use of firearms. The proper place for the bullet to strike is at the intersection of two imaginary lines extending from the right horn or anima, edge of poll to the left eye and from the left horn or edge of poll to the right eye. A sharp blow at this point with a sledge hammer will also stun the animal.

    As soon as the animal is down, bleed it without delay. Stand behind the animal as in Figure 2 and with the sharp skinning knife make an incision through the hide in the middle of the dewlap immediately in front of the breastbone.

    Hold the knife so the point is directed toward the rear of the animal, insert the knife under the breastbone toward the rump of the animal and cut toward the backbone. This will cut the arteries that cross just beneath the point of the breastbone.

    Be careful not to stick too deep into the chest cavity. Cut straight with the backbone. Pump the foreleg back and forth a few times to help bleeding.

    Turn the animal on its back and place a short prop (square post) on either side to hold it there. Remove the forefeet and shanks at the knee by locating and cutting through the flat joint with a knife. Skin out the hind legs and remove the hind feet and shanks by sawing as in.

    Next, split the hide from the opening in front of the brisket down the midline of the belly to the bung. Hold the skinning knife at a slight angle.

    Then split the hide at the rear of each hind leg beginning where the shank was removed, moving to the udder or scrotum. Do not skin the outside of the hind legs nor front legs until the carcass is being hoisted. The intact hide will keep the shanks clean during hoisting.

    The next part of skinning is known as “siding.” Begin the siding by sliding the knife under the skin that has been cut over the belly. Grasp the loosened hide with hand (hair side is easiest to hold) and pull it up and outward. Place the knife firmly against the hide with the cutting edge turned slightly toward the hide.

    Use long, smooth strokes of the knife, to remove the hide down over the sides. This is one of the most difficult tasks in skinning.

    Opening  the  Carcass

    After siding is done, cut through the center of the brisket with a knife and saw through the breastbone as in Figure 7. Insert the handle of the knife in the abdominal cavity with the blade leaning backward to open the belly cavity. In case of a male, remove the penis before opening the carcass.

    The inside of each round muscle over the pelvis is covered with a thick white membrane. Follow this membrane and avoid cutting into the muscle. The knife can be forced between the soft cartilage that joins the pelvic bone. In older animals, the pelvis must be sawed.

    The carcass is now ready for hoisting. Insert the hooks of a beef spreader or singletree in the tendons of the hind legs as in Figure 10. After the carcass is partially hoisted, complete skinning the rounds and the back of the carcass.

    Remove the bung by cutting around it on the two sides and back and pulling through the opening of the pelvic cavity. Continue pulling the bung and intestines and cutting the ligaments that attach the intestines to the back.

    Pull down on the paunch to tear it loose from the carcass, cut the esophagus where it goes through the diaphragm, and allow the intestines and paunch to drop into a container or on the ground. The liver should still be attached to the carcass and can next be removed. Remove the gall bladder from the liver.

    Continue hoisting the carcass until the head clears the ground as in Figure 12. Remove the heart and lungs by first cutting out the diaphragm, the white connective tissue that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Grasp the heart and lungs, pull forward and downward, and cut the large blood vessel attached to the backbone. Remove the heart, lungs, and esophagus as one unit.

    Complete skinning the carcass and remove the head. The head is removed by cutting across the neck above the poll and through the atlas joint as illustrated in Figure 13.

    Carefully examine all the internal organs and the dressed carcass for any abnormalities or conditions (such as abscesses or inflammation) that might affect the wholesomeness of the meat.

    Splitting  the  Carcass

    The carcass should be split into two sides. Start the splitting by first sawing through the sacral vertebrae from the inside. As soon as the cut is made through the pelvic area, sawing can be done easier from the back. Make the split down the center of the backbone to the neck. Leave the neck attached to balance the sides on the singletree.

    Trim any soiled, bruised, or bloody pieces of meat. Wash the carcass with cold water to remove any remaining blood and dirt. Pump the forelegs up and down a few times to aid in draining blood from the forequarters.

    To improve the appearance of the carcass, shroud it tightly with wet, clean white muslin to smooth the exterior fat during chilling. Use skewers or ties to tighten the shroud.

    Beef should be aged a few days before cutting. The amount of aging will depend on the amount of fat covering, desired flavor, and temperature.

    Carcasses that have only a thin fat covering should be aged three to five days; those with more fat, five to seven days. Very little tenderization occurs after five to seven days. Longer aging may result in off-flavors and odors due to microbial growth.

    If the temperature of the carcass rises above 40°F, the time required for aging is reduced. Also, chances of spoilage are increased.

    The sides of the carcass are quartered by cutting between the 12th and 13th rib. Following is a common procedure for cutting the quarters into wholesale cuts.

    Forequarter

    Remove the rib and plate from the chuck and brisket by cutting between the fifth and sixth rib. Cut perpendicular to the top line of the carcass. Separate the rib cut from the plate at a point 11/2 inches below the rib eye muscle on the end where the side was quartered, and cut parallel to the back.

    The rib may be cut into rib steaks by cutting the desired thickness. The larger part may be made into a roast, or the entire cut boned into boneless rib steaks or roasts. The rib cuts are rather tender and may be broiled or dry roasted.

    The plate may be processed by cutting two or three rows (11/2-2 inches) of short ribs and the remaining boned for ground beef.

    To remove the brisket and foreshank from the chuck, first locate the arm bone joint near the surface of the carcass. Cut about 1 inch above the top of the joint, perpendicular to the cut made when the quarter was first divided.

    The brisket may be separated from the shank by cutting through the natural seam that joins them. The shank is usually boned for grinding but cross-cut shank or soup bones may be made. The brisket should be boned for a roast or for grinding.

    The blade end of the square-cut chuck may be cut into steaks or roast.

    The arm end of the chuck may be cut into steaks or roasts. The neck portion can best be used for ground beef.

 Covered Yarn

Covered Yarn

When talking about covered yarn, one talks basically about  elastane  yarns that have at least one more yarn wrapped around. Covering however is not exclusively applied to elastane, sometimes also fine wires are covered.
There are two purposes of covering a yarn: one needs an elasticity which normal textile yarn cannot provide while one would still like to keep the apperance of the textile yarn. This is the case for covering  elastane  where most often a textile Polyester / Polyamide / ... is wrapped around the elastane core. 

    Covering a yarn can also be in order to hide something. This is most often the case when covering fine wires. The yarn that is wrapped around gives the looks whereas the core (the fine wire) still provides the functionality (like conductivity).

    Single covered yarns are yarns where a second yarn is wrapped around a core yarn.
Double covered yarns are yarns where two separate yarns are wrapped around a core yarn.

    The second layer of wrapping mainly serves to compensate the twist direction of the first layer.
With air covered yarns, the outer yarn is intermingled around the core yarn. 

    A non-elastic multilfilament yarn can for example be intermingled with an elasthane yarn that is in the core. This construction can be of help in certain embroidery applications.

    In the example of Elasthane, a non elastic yarn gets wrapped around a twisted elasthane yarn. The elasthane is thus fully  covered by the non elastic yarn which leads the yarn as a whole to have the look as well as the haptics of the non elastic yarn. However, the perks of elasthane are still to be noticed when wearing a fabric that is made out of such a core spun yarn by a much higher wear comfort for example.

    Functional yarns that meet a growing number of customer demands

    Technical yarns are materials with special resistance. Be it high chemical resistance, tensile strength, flame retardancy or functionality such as electrical conductivity. What if a piece of clothing would not only look good on you but would also keep you warm? What if it would also be water-repellent? And what if it had even more features, such as being wind-proof, able to maintain air circulation or act as an antibacterial layer? In today’s textile market, all of these attributes can be found, often even in combination with one another. This is the result if advanced technology becoming available in the textile industry, mainly in the form of functional yarns.

    The advantages of functional yarns over classic ones

    Functional yarn is responsible for the development of a whole range of new clothing categories that have not been known before. One of those categories is the entire line of athletic clothing, from warm-up clothes made from water-repellent fabric to stretchable sportswear that doesn’t falter and snaps back into shape when fast, dynamic movements are performed. The textiles worn by athletes in all kinds of sports often come with a range of other advantages apart from their elasticity and all of those have been made possible by the use of specialized yarns.

    Enjoying the great outdoors thanks to functional yarns

    It is not only clothing items where functional yarns play out their full strength, although that field is one of the most important. But yarns are also needed in many other areas and if you’re an outdoor person you will find a number of examples. Ropes for climbing, fishing lines, tents and many other items rely on yarns that can withstand adverse conditions and function fully even after many years of use. Moreover, yarns can also be found in many other applications, from compressive stockings furniture to materials needed for shielding and safety purposes.

    Functional yarns come in many different varieties

    One of the most sought-after commodities in the market for fabrics are elastic yarns. However, this is only one aspect of textiles that functional yarns can provide. There are also yarns that have the ability to discharge electrostatic, those that can shield from electromagnetic rays or yarns that can protect the wearer from heat or cold or even flames. All of these yarns require a meticulous manufacturing and quality monitoring process, which is why they should always be purchased from established, reputable suppliers.

    A big name for functional yarns

    In the world of functional yarns, buyers can choose among a large number of suppliers. However, it is important that buyers apply a rigorous quality testing regime before making a purchasing decision. For this type of yarns, it is of utmost importance that the products live up to their promises. For this reason, manufacturers such as Swiss company b?umlin & ernst ag usually are the address to go to. With proven quality, the ability to customize yarns and a long history of development experience, this supplier will reliably cater to all your needs.

    What You Need To Know About Quick Dry Fabric

    Nothing can equal the determination, strength, and stamina of athletes and outdoorsmen or women. Fabric technology can help athletes, travelers, and nature lovers to achieve their performance goals by overcoming natural challenges such as rising humidity levels, temperature changes, and sweat production.   

    Quick-dry fabrics – also called sweat-wicking of moisture-management fabrics – do just so. They help people feel fresh in any condition, reduce the visibility of sweat patches, and better regulate body temperature. As more people recognize the great potential of these fabrics, manufacturers and scientists have brought to life new types and started to test new applications. But no two quick-dry fabrics are the same! Here is all you need to know about selecting the right sweat-wicking fabric for your products.

    Quick-dry fabrics are fabrics designed to absorb the sweat away from your body, pushing it towards the outer edge of the garment or footwear and facilitating natural evaporation. Quick-dry fabrics can be made of various materials, including natural and manmade fibers, among which the most common are merino wool, nylon, and polyester. 

    Natural fibers are those found in nature, which can be directly made into fabrics without chemical processing, while  man-made  fibers can be processed from natural raw materials or synthesized through chemical methods. Some  man-made  fibers take the multiple advantages of natural fibers to strengthen and integrate, combining the traits that natural fibers don’t obtain, such as  antibacterial properties.

    Today, the number of quick-dry fabrics and their application is skyrocketing, but these synthetic fabrics, such as nylon and polyester, are still a relatively new invention. In fact, in 1986, an American company called Invista pioneered the developing “Coolmax ”, which is a kind of polyester fabric and is breathable and sweat-wicking. It also made great progress in other synthetic fabrics like spandex and nylon. However, the patent for these revolutionary sweat-wicking fabrics was only  filed in 1998  by Robert Kasdan and Stanley Kornblum. Until then, only minimally-wicking and natural fabrics were used, including cotton and wool. 

    However, after the initial introduction of moisture management fabrics, this technology continued to be developed. Today, moisture-wicking fabrics are those that can absorb the moisture and promote speedy evaporation, thus preventing the garment from becoming damp. 

    Since the production of sweat increases as the heart rate rises during exercise or strenuous activities, sweat-wicking fabrics can avoid the feeling of dampness. In addition, by keeping the body surface exposed to moisture  below 50–65%, these fabrics can guarantee much higher comfort levels and better body temperature control. 

    Does Red Heart Heat Wave Yarn Work?

    A few months ago, I started hearing about a new yarn by Red Heart called  Heat Wave. It was launched at the perfect time. It was early fall and all of the knitters and crocheters I knew were starting to plan the projects they’d knit through the following season. The idea of a  self-warming yarn  intrigued us all. (Clearly Red Heart knows marketing!)

    Heat Wave yarn is called “self-warming,” but technically it’s sun-warmed. The  Heat Wave yarn  promise is that it will be much warmer than a traditional yarn of the same weight and fiber. This yarn purportedly heats up 12° warmer than other yarns when it’s exposed to sunlight, even on cloudy days.

    No wonder there was so much chatter. The potential seems endless!

    Those who knit for charity were encouraged; they remarked that the temperature difference would be significant for homeless recipients of their knitwear.

    Others were talking about the benefits for their loved ones who spend time outdoors: children, runners, hunters, and more.

    Those who worked outdoors spoke up quickly, too. For the elementary school teacher assigned to bus duty and the woman whose granddaughter worked construction, a bump of a few degrees had definite appeal.

    Heat Wave yarn  is 100% acrylic. Each ball weighs in at 3.5 ounces (100 g) and is 198 yards (181 m) long. It’s a medium weight yarn with a recommended  US size 8 needle  (5.00 mm) or  size I hook  (5.50 mm). The colorways are named to evoke summertime nostalgia, like  Ocean,  Beach Ball, and  Beach Bag.

    Red Heart Heat Wave yarn  is widely available at big box craft stores. The price point is comparable to other acrylic yarns.

    So how does it work? While knitters are speculating that the arrangement of fibers could trap heat or that chemical washes could be the newly employed technology, Red Heart hasn’t shared the secret.

    There were even some whispers that this is all just a marketing ploy. Beyond  how  it works was a more basic question.

    The Best Yarns for Crochet Bikinis and Swimsuits

    For those who have never worn the “right” crocheted/ knitted swimsuit before, would say that it will sag and carry water weight and fall to your knees!

    Yes, I had the same thought too! When I just started making bikinis back in 2013, the first thing I did was to take the shower test. Did it slide down? Did it bulk up? No it did not. 

    Well, It didn’t because of a few  tips and tricks  I learned. Here’s what you need to know before making one.

    The first and most important thing you will need to know is the yarn type. Yarns used for swimming and lounging would require a thing called Spandex!

    If you would like to receive free written patterns and video tutorials straight into your inbox, just click  Subscribe  to get into our mailing list.

    If you have never heard of Spandex, Spandex is an elastic synthetic fiber, also known as Lycra. Stronger and more durable than natural rubber.

    Elastane fabric is made of natural and synthetic fibers to provide that stretch and recovery that you need in a swimsuit.

    Cool right! That’s why this is so important to look for yarns with elastane to maintain the shape and to provide that extra stretch.

    But remember not all spandex yarn works the same. It would have to be light preferably below category 3 like a DK or lightweight yarn.

 
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