1389-12-29، 02:23 عصر
Origami, the Japanese name for the art of paper folding, comes from the Japanese verb oru (to fold) and the noun kami (paper). The word "origami" is now commonly used around the world. A finished origami figure is called a model, the method for folding a model is called a design, and drawn instructions for a model is called a set of diagrams. An origami artist is usually called a paperfolder.
The only requirement for origami is a piece of paper, making it one of the most accessible arts. Almost any paper may be used, but standard "origami paper" is thin, strong, and holds a crease very well. It is also usually white on one side and colored on the other side, and is cut into 15 cm squares (about 6 inches). Some origami artists also experiment with other materials, and have folded models out of cardboard, various types of cloth, wire mesh, sheet metal, and even sheets of pasta.
The basic technique of origami is folding, and many complex folds have been developed. The simplest fold is the valley fold, where a flat piece of paper is folded towards the paperfolder. When this fold is unfolded, the crease line forms a valley shape. Closely related is the mountain fold, where the paper is folded away from the paperfolder. This crease line forms an upraised ridge, or a mountain shape. Since these folds differ only in direction, mountain folds are usually made by turning the paper over, folding a valley fold in the indicated position, and then turning the paper over again. Certain combinations of basic folds form bases, starting shapes that may be used to fold many different models. The four most common bases, from simplest to the more complex, are the kite base, the fish base, the bird base, and the frog base.
The names of the bases reveal that many paperfolders enjoy folding models of animals (including all living creatures). Besides the many animal models, there are models of almost all physical objects including people, faces, plants, vehicles and buildings. Some paperfolders fold abstract or mathematical shapes, and others specialize in modular origami, where many copies of a simple folded shape are assembled to form large elaborate structures.
Paperfolders are a diverse group of people ranging from artists to scientists to therapists. Artists and craftspeople use origami as a way to express themselves creatively. Scientists, architects, and mathematicians explore the geometry of origami for its own beauty and for practical applications. Therapists and teachers use origami as a tool to help their patients recover from illness or to help their students learn. Many people fold paper simply because it is fun.
The Japanese transmitted their designs via an oral tradition, with the recreational designs being passed from mother to daughter. Because nothing was ever written down, only the simplest designs were kept. The first written instructions appeared in AD 1797 with the publication of the Senbazuru Orikata (Thousand Crane Folding). One portion of the Kayaragusa (also known as Kan no mado or Window on Midwinter), an encyclopedia of Japanese culture published in 1845, included a comprehensive collection of traditional Japanese figures. The name origami was coined in 1880 from the words oru (to fold) and kami (paper). Previously, the art was called orikata ("folded shapes").
Meanwhile, paperfolding was also being developed in Spain. The secret of papermaking reached the Arabic world in the eighth century, and the Arabs brought it to Spain in the 12th century. The Arabs were devoutly Muslim and their religion forbade the creation of representational figures. Instead, they followed their mastery of mathematics and their paperfolding was a study of the geometries inherent in the paper. After the Arabs left Spain, the Spanish went beyond the geometric designs and developed papiroflexia, an art this is still popular in Spain and Argentina.
Modern origami owes a great deal to the efforts of YOSHIZAWA Akira. After centuries of people folding the same traditional models, Master Yoshizawa published books with completely new models starting in the early 1950's. He, together with American Sam Randlett, also developed the standard set of origami diagram symbols that is still used today. Exhibitions of his work, both in Japan and around the world, introduced origami to many people, leading to the formation of various origami associations including the Origami Center of America (now OrigamiUSA), and the British Origami Society. Now there are origami masters and enthusiasts in many countries, forming a widespread but close-knit community. Yoshizawa, who died in 2005 at the age of 94, is still regarded as the grandmaster of origami.
Today, master paperfolders can be found in many places around the world. New and improved folding techniques have produced models that would have astounded the ancients. They still manage to astound many people today. Where once it was considered a feat to fold a representational insect that gave the impression of a segmented body and multiple legs, anatomically correct insects are now considered commonplace and the feat is to create insects that are of a recognizable species. Happily, not all paperfolders have reduced paperfolding to greater and greater achievements of technical skill. The artistry of paperfolding is also flourishing.