1390-4-7، 09:55 عصر
عنوان (انگلیسی): Analysis of urban domains in Azari period Case study: Rabe Rashidi-The utopia of Khaje Rashid-Al-Din, Fazl Ol Allah
نشریه: نشريه هنرهاي زيبا- معماري و شهرسازي
شماره: نشريه هنرهاي زيبا- معماري و شهرسازي (دوره: ۲، شماره: ۴۱)
نویسنده: فرح حبيب
خواجه رشيدالدين فضلالله همداني دانشمند و سياستمدار برجسته ايراني قرن هفتم هجري در شمال شهر تبريز، شهركي با جنبه علمي و آموزشي به نام ربع رشيدي بنيان گذاشت. هدف وي از تأسيس ربعرشيدي ايجاد مكاني بود كه در آن جمعي از علما و دانشمندان را مستقر كند. وي شهري آرماني را طرح و در عمل اجرا كرد. شهر آرماني طي تاريخ به اشكال گوناگون مطرح بوده و به گونهاي تبلور ارزش-ها و آرمانهاي هر نسل در تحقيق جامعه مطلوبشان بوده است. هر چند از كالبد ربع رشيدي چيزي به جا نمانده است، اما جزئيات و تأسيسات ربع رشيدي در وقفنامه آن بسيار دقيق بيان شده تا جايي كه امروزه ميتوان از روي همان توضيحات نقشه آن مكان را پياده كرد. از آنجا كه بسياري ازآرمانهاي وي در اين شهرك متجلي گرديده است، لذا به عنوان مصداقي از شيوه آذري و با روش تحليل محتواي متن با استفاده از وقفنامه مذكور تلاش گرديد تا فضاهاي شهري آن به تصوير و تحليل در آيد. بطور خلاصه اين مجتمع را ميتوان به سه قسمت اساسي تقسيم كرد: ربع رشيدي، شهرستان رشيدي، ربض رشيدي. در اين مقاله به بررسي عرصههاي شهري اين شهرك به عنوان شهري آرماني از ديدگاه خواجه رشيدالدين پرداخته شده است.
Khaje Rashid-Al-din, Fazl Ul Allah Hamedani, well known scientist and politician of 7th century, founded an educational and academic centre in northern Tabriz city called Rabe Rashidi. The main objective of this centre was to assemble all the scientists altogether inside a scientific centre. His Utopia has attracted special attention in different periods and played a crucial role in demonstrate of the ideal thoughts of different generations. Utopia in definition is a great and comprehensive schema of an idealized and desired society which is a real world and not a legend. However, nowadays, the whole traces of Rabe Rashidi center have been entirely ruined. Fortunately, all the characteristics of this small town have been recorded in detailed in the bequest of the founder. So that today it can be found easily. Since a huge part of his ideal thoughts were manifested within this town, then by means of mentioned bequest, this centre is attempted to be analysed as a remarkable sample of Azari period. In short, this town is divided into three sections: Rabe Rashidi, Rashidi Province and Rabze Rashidi. This study aims to survey the urban domains of this town as an idealized utopia for Khaje Rashid Al Din. key findings derive from studies shows that this settlement had a structural design which was scheduled that includes the main core as the main structure in the form of Rabe-Rashidi which was introduced before. The main structure of the city based on the location of the tomb and the tomb as the focal point of the city had major impact on the formation of main physical structure of the urban area an urban fabric. Here an important consideration is the impact of the religious tradition which we name that "Vaghf" in this period which becomes as a popular institution with the social function of urban management which creates urban spaces and has a major role on urban management and permanent urban spaces and their continuity. Core composed of large dome, mosques and accessories related to them Daralzyafh Daralshfa. Here we can consider religious atmosphere, which configured the city and also the importance of school and Daralshfa, together and Daralzyafh as a series of strategic multi-functional spaces which worked together in city.
Another important point in establishing this city was the social cultural assimilation which despite distinct neighborhoods and locating every grade or category and different kind of expertise in their own physical domain and territory but in hole the city was totally designed for educated and elites of society which choosing the name of districts shows it well. The number of Karvansaras tells us about a well active economy and educational Centers, Health center and research Centers demonstrate that this city was scientific pole of its own time. This makes this city unique. Another important consideration is the very important role of urban space and public domains in spatial organization of this city which shows the interrelation of society and its physical aspects in the city configuration as urban public spaces.
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